Sunday, May 20, 2007 11 Comments

Understanding racial idealism

Lately I've been making the case that the modern world has largely replaced "religion," defined as the veneration of paranormal beings, with idealism, defined as the veneration of mysterious universal principles.

While I am not a paranormalist, I see this change as almost entirely pernicious. Gods, goddesses, saints and such tend to come with holy books and sacred myths. So religions, while they do of course change, have a certain stability - think of them as DNA viruses. Idealisms are more like RNA viruses. Idealists are constantly creating new universals and mutating the existing ones, often in the weirdest and most surprising ways.

In my last post on the subject I referred to our present official idealism as, simply, Idealism. But of course we have a specific set of ideals that we venerate - Democracy, Equality, and so on. (I think italicizing these words is a good way to underscore their murky, ill-defined nature.)

So it's probably best to pick a specific name for this faith. When naming other peoples' beliefs - which is often necessary, as people tend to believe their beliefs are simply the truth - it's a good idea to pick words that they consider complimentary, certainly not pejorative. I think a good name in this spirit is Progressive Idealism. Certainly it's hard to imagine any officer of the Polygon taking umbrage at the epithet "progressive idealist."

Okay. So the planet is a one-party state ruled by the PIs. Progressive Idealism is of course the idealism of the Allies of World War II, and the faith of today's Brahmin caste. What we know as politics is mere squabbling between Progressive-Idealist factions. Even Communism is probably best understood as a PI splinter group. Like all good parties the Progressive Idealists have a color, and that color is gray. There are no red states or blue states. There are only pinkish and bluish grays. Moreover, Progressive Idealism is a nontheistic branch of Christianity, specifically its Unitarian (American) and Nonconformist (British) sects, both of course dating back to the Puritans, who were the first to construct the integrated political, educational and religious system whose much-improved descendant now holds Planet Three in its icy, inexorable grip.

So what's the good news?

The good news is that we actually could have done a lot worse. Progressive Idealism was by no means the only idealism contending for power in the last century.

Perhaps it's just me, but I have trouble seeing how anyone can not be fascinated by the Third Reich. National Socialism developed in the most civilized country in the world, and at least before the war its popularity there was overwhelming. And its failure to dominate the planet, or at least Europe, was the result of a few military mistakes that easily could have gone the other way.

I find it extremely easy, in fact, to imagine an alternate Nazi 2007. I don't even imagine it as a Gestapo-dominated paranoid hell. Much of our historical memory of the Third Reich is, quite understandably, a memory of wartime Nazism. But if the war had gone the other way, this would be a memory of the wartime Allies, hardly a pretty picture either. Hitlerism no doubt would have moderated over time, as Stalinism and Maoism did.

For me the best way to understand National Socialism is, again, as a kind of Idealism. Instead of Progressive ideals such as Democracy, Equality, and Humanity, the Nazis venerated ideals such as Courage, Loyalty, and Aryanity (if we can use the word).

One interesting case of an ideal shared by both the 1930s Nazis and the 2007 Progressives is the Environment. Nazi environmentalism was definitely a different thing from ours, but the family resemblance is clear, and although environmentalism was hardly the most important part of the Nazi program it perhaps provides a window into their worldview.

A name for Nazi idealism that's independent of the specific organization might be Aryanism. The "Aryan race" is certainly an Ideal by my definition - an undefinable universal - because human biodiversity is clinal. And in fact the Nazis struggled mightily for a definition of "Aryan" that made any sense at all, without success. Nor, even if Nazi anthropology somehow could be persuaded to cohere, is there any way to derive such concepts as "Aryan" or "German" science or art from the whole weird mirage.

For me, the simplest way to understand the Nazi conscience is to see that Germans in the Third Reich were concerned about the Volk in almost exactly the same way their grandchildren are concerned about the Environment. Both Aryanism and Environmentalism have deep roots in the human instinct for cleanliness and purity. Once the ideal of the Deutsche Volk as a universal coheres in your mind, it's very easy to see how important it is to work for the future of the Volk, expel contaminants, and so on.

Aryanism is also more closely related to Equality than most of us would like to admit. German society before World War I was very hierarchical and aristocratic, at least by today's standard. The alliance of Hindenburg and Hitler, the field marshal and the corporal, was something new. Nazism was a lower-middle-class movement, Vaisya to the core. It certainly did not believe that all humans were equal. But it did believe that all Germans were equal. This was a revolutionary idea, and it gave Nazism quite a bit of its demonic energy.

In our Progressive-Idealist world, Aryanism is about as unfashionable as it gets. The only people who openly espouse it are criminal gangs. So it's very difficult to imagine a civilized society in which Aryanism is fashionable, exactly as Environmentalism is in our world. But of course, in 1930s Germany, so it was.

This is why Nazism still strikes us with a special horror, unlike Communism, despite the fact that Communism killed far more people. It is simply more alien and more unfashionable. Ultimately, Communism was if not a branch a close relative of Progressive Idealism, an estranged family member, misguided but "well-intentioned." Nazism was a true enemy, defined very much as a reaction to the Progressive victory of the Great War.

It's also important to remember that the mass murder of the Jews was not, by any means, a mainstream element of 1930s Aryanism. The peacetime Nazi program was to expel them, confiscating their property, which was thought in the usual undefined way to have been unfairly cheated from the German people. Therefore, the fact that most Germans supported the Nazis does not make them in any way complicit in the Holocaust (and still less their descendants). The Holocaust, a secret military operation, was the act of the people who planned and executed it.

Is it so impossible to imagine Environmentalism being used as the basis for mass murder? Our ideals of Humanity and the Environment coexist uneasily, to say the least. Today's PIs have no trouble seeing themselves as both humanist and environmentalist. There is no need for this to make any sense - Idealism never has to make sense. But perhaps future historians will regard it as a bizarre and inexplicable juxtaposition.


Blogger Victor said...

The solution to Idealism is for all of us to become pragmatists, IMO. Grand abstract narratives shouldn't take any more of our attention than the question of how many angels can dance on the head of a pin, except inasmuch as they have concrete, pragmatic relevance.

Instead of being concerned with Justice, we should be concerned with what to do about real crime. Instead of being concerned with Freedom, we should be concerned about how to let people have the maximum range of choices. Instead of being concerned with Property, we should be concerned with what concrete goals it is people actually want to attain through the institution of property.

That being said, some forms of political idealism are definitely worse than others.

May 20, 2007 at 5:44 PM  
Blogger ricpic said...

Right. The murder of six million Jews was carried out secretly by just a tiny cadre of true believers. And the German Volk new nozzing, nozzing. Putz!

May 20, 2007 at 6:35 PM  
Anonymous Michael said...

It is always worthwhile to bear in mind that "Nazi" is a shorthand German expression derived from the similar, but earlier expression "Sozi" (=socialist).
Nazis were "national socialists," as contrasted with Marxists or Bolshevists, who are "international socialists."

While Marxism, as you correctly point out, appeals to a sort of distorted Judeo-Christianity, Nazism attempted to fill the function that a tribal religion would have done in the days of paganism. Despite this, the religious element of these two ideologies is less important than many commentators seem to believe.

Hitler, as revealed in his "Table Talk," was as great an atheist and scoffer at religion as were Marx or Lenin. He recognized the value of myth and ritual as instruments of propaganda - hence his admiration of Wagner's operas, and of Leni Riefenstahl's cinematography - but ridiculed the mystical neo-pagan beliefs held by some of his followers, e.g., Himmler or Hess. The common thread connecting National and International Socialism is pseudo-science, or scientism.

Marxism was founded upon a combination of "scientific" Hegelian historical theory with ideas Marx took from classical economists (unfortunately the ones that were wrong, such as the labor theory of value). Nazism was founded upon a combination of evolutionary socio-biology and eugenics with theories about prehistoric racial or ethnic migration that were derived from 19th-century philology. This reflects the effect of the Enlightenment. Before it, charlatans attempted to invest their schemes with the numen of religion, whereas after it, they tried to clothe them in the prestige of science.

Bolshevism and Nazism are best understood as two peas from the same pernicious pod, as best seen during the period of the Ribbentrop-Molotov treaty. The antipathy between the two before and after that period was of the same character as that which existed between Stalinism and Trotskyism - an internecine conflict between two kindred and competing versions of socialism. Listen to Walther Darré's speech in "Triumph of the Will." But for a few tropes characteristic of Nazi rhetoric, it could have been uttered by a Soviet commissar.

The effort to place Nazism on the "right" from the time when its first deputies were elected to the Reichstag, and later during and after World War II, owes itself mainly to the influence of Communists and Communist sympathisers. There was, in fact, Soviet complicity with Germany from the time Lenin agreed to its re-armament under the Treaty of Rapallo until Hitler's rupture of the Ribbentrop-Molotov pact.

History is (re)written by the victors, and unfortunately Soviet communism was one of them. All these inconvenient facts have been swept under the rug, Stalin was thereby enabled to portray himself as heroic leader of a Great Patriotic War, while 1930s American and western European communists claimed to be "premature anti-fascists." Inverting this stratagem, it has been a well worn polemical technique of Marxists to paint all their critics as "fascists." It is appalling how many people still fall for these deceptions.

May 21, 2007 at 12:53 PM  
Blogger Mencius Moldbug said...

victor -

While of course I agree with you, the historical term "pragmatism" has a nontrivial amount of baggage that's not strictly related to its dictionary meaning.

One, it became associated with a group of people rather than a way of thinking, and developed associations with windy characters such as John Dewey who were anything but pragmatic in the dictionary sense of the word.

Two, worse, even when properly applied, it led to a kind of scientistic way of thinking that emphasized more observable over less observable patterns of cause and effect, like the drunk looking for his keys under the lamppost. When coupled with the fervent nationalism of its period, pragmatism led to an unhealthy level of belief in "planning" and an abandonment of classical, formalist traditions of law and economics, which it considered stuffy old nonsense from the past. This has done a lot of damage - in many ways we are still recovering.

ricpic - try Victor Klemperer's excellent diaries (of living as a Jew in the Third Reich) for a good case study of what information flow in wartime Germany looked like.


michael - Nazism and Communism shared a lot of rhetoric and a lot of structural features, but I would say they drew their real base from different castes. They both appealed to the "workers," but neither of course was a real working-class movement, although Nazism came a lot closer. Old Fighters tended to be petty-bourgeois, Old Bolsheviks tended to be intellectuals. Of course as they gained power, all sorts of people supported them.

So how you compare the two depends on what kinds of features you're looking at. The tools are the same, the roots are not.

I agree, however, with your main point that describing Nazism as "right-wing" in any way, shape or form is extremely confusing at best.

May 21, 2007 at 3:27 PM  
Blogger The Monster from Polaris said...

"Is it so impossible to imagine Environmentalism being used as the basis for mass murder?"

Not at all. See

May 22, 2007 at 4:37 AM  
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January 31, 2009 at 11:45 PM  
Anonymous Anonymous said...

^^ nice blog!! ^@^

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March 2, 2009 at 7:27 PM  
Anonymous Anonymous said...

^^ nice blog!! thanks a lot! ^^

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March 2, 2009 at 7:28 PM  
Anonymous Anonymous said...


March 6, 2009 at 9:49 PM  

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