Sunday, August 19, 2007 26 Comments

Rotary management: the next big thing

I confess: I am not actually a management consultant.

However, I have invented a new theory of management, which I call the rotary system. My prediction is that rotary management will take the world by storm. The French will adore it, the Chinese will export it, the British will borrow it, the Israelis will adopt it as standard military procedure, the EU will define it as an environmental safety regulation, and the IRS will insert it by reference as Form 1337.

The rotary system separates all employees into two types, which it calls the stators and the rotors. Stators are normal employees as you would find at any other company. What makes the rotary system superior is its use of rotors, who practice customer-driven positional rotation.

Needless to say, I am currently seeking vital intellectual-property protection on the rotary system. [Just this week we've filed in Malawi and Antigua - I'll bet they still think just one person writes this blog... ha - QM] And CDPR is the principal claim. So you'll understand if I am a little vague about some of the more technical aspects of the design.

But I can talk about the basic features of the system. Again, people, this is my property. Please don't try to use the rotary system yourself. You will probably do it wrong, and someone will get hurt. At least contact me first. My fees are not excessive.

The premise of the rotary system is that, at any large company, you have a class of generalist managers who can occupy any important position. Top management is fungible. As John Sculley proved, selling soft drinks is an excellent preparation for running the world's leading computer company.

Therefore, rather than a rigid hierarchical process for promoting managers, we can nurture these generalists by rotating them in office. Rotation keeps managers from overspecializing, and more important, it breaks up the little cliques and empires that form in every office.

And even more important, rotation gives us a way to involve the customers in the process of management. Customer-driven rotation is a critical competitive advantage for the new sustainable enterprises that will compete and win in the 21st-century global market. Whatever your business is, you'll find that giving customers a voice in management makes it more efficient and responsive. In the 20th century they used to say "the customer is king," but as we'll see, in the rotary system the customer almost literally is king.

One of the basic insights of rotary management theory is that there are two types of people: specialists and generalists. These are basic personality types - S and G. Like Myers-Briggs, but with only one letter.

In the old days, people tended to move back and forth between specialist and generalist roles, or advance from specialist to generalist positions. We see a lot less of this now, and for very good reasons. The rotary system makes this division scientific by separating the personality types into career tracks. When an employee starts with the company, he or she is coded either S or G, and this code is permanent. Personality tests, of course, are ideal, but another easy way to assign S or G codes is by race, religion, or national origin - for example, all Germans might be G, all Shiites might be S, and so on. A little touch of whimsy goes a long way here.

However you do it, every S is a stator and every G is a rotor. The rotor and stator tracks must be separate. No one who has ever worked as a stator can become a rotor, or vice versa. It's sort of like the difference between a doctor and a veterinarian.

To use the rotary system, start by hiring a good-sized pool of rotors, always people who have strong liberal educations (never advanced technical or scientific degrees), and have worked in other fields, at nonprofits, in law or medicine, or in any other role either unskilled, unmanaged, or both. A rotor must never have held any statorlike position. The generalist mind is delicate. Any hint of specialization ruins it.

The rotary system manages stators in more or less the same way as 20th-century corporate employees. They are salaried, they have formal grades or ranks, and HR must initiate or at least approve all promotions. All stators hold their positions indefinitely, and change jobs only at their discretion or that of their supervisor.

Rotors are salaried as well (there are no "options" under the rotary system, nor is anyone paid by the hour or piece), but they have no formal ranks. Pay is by position. However, rank can usually be inferred from a rotor's salary and/or responsibility. A rotor's importance is defined by the importance of his or her position. A rotor with no position is returned to the rotor pool, in which he or she receives no salary at all, but is allowed to engage in external freelance consulting. Obviously, attrition in the pool is high, which keeps rotors focused on success.

Responsibilities are defined as follows: the rotors are always on top. Except in the special case of inspection (see below), no stator ever gets to tell a rotor what to do. No position fluctuates between stator or rotor: each job is always one or the other. And the rotor thickness is one. There is never any direct administrative relationship between any two rotors. No rotor can be the supervisor of another rotor, at least not officially, although informal relationships will of course form.

The company assigns rotors to their jobs in a very special way. Rotors rotate in office. This is the secret of the rotary system. (Of course, it's not a secret now. But that doesn't mean it isn't proprietary technology. If you think you can just copy my invention - think again, buddy.)

Every rotary position has a formal period at which the rotor who occupies the position is, or at least can be, replaced. Periods are typically a small number of years, such as two or four. Depending on how the rotary system is installed (ideally, it should be integrated with your ERP system), it may or may not limit the number of consecutive periods for which any one rotor may be reappointed, but the simplest approach is to just disallow reappointment.

For each rotary position, at each period expiration, your HR department will produce a list of candidates, all of whom are rotors and present employees of the company. The individual rotors who hold these positions will then be chosen by a process of customer selection.

Customer selection is exactly what it sounds like. The goal of the rotary system is to produce a truly customer-driven enterprise. It proposes a simple solution to this problem, which for some reason has been overlooked: allow the customers to select the management.

Because HR chooses only qualified candidates, there is no danger whatsoever that anyone who is not qualified will be selected for the position. Quite the contrary! Rotors will compete on the basis of their ability to satisfy the customer's needs. Obviously, an uncompetitive candidate, if one somehow slips past HR, will be unlikely to fool the eagle-eyed customer.

Successful rotors will have to demonstrate a commitment to customer service - to the customers themselves. They will be chosen by those who feel the results of their work. If Starbucks, for example, starts selling burned, watery espresso - oh, wait! They do sell burned, watery espresso. That's probably because they don't use the rotary system.

A customer is anyone who benefits from the company's work. It's important to use the widest possible definition of this term. Employees are customers too, for example. Stockholders are certainly customers. Any employee of any supplier or distributor is a customer. Any direct family member of a customer is a customer. And so on. Basically, a customer is what corporate governance experts call a stakeholder - anyone to whom the company's activities matter.

Each customer gets one loyalty point. In the rotary system, customer selection is a human process. As the inventor of rotary management, I absolutely reject the idea of varying loyalty points by stakeholder importance - whatever that might even mean. When any position's rotary period expires, the company conducts a selection, and the candidate rotor who receives the most loyalty points has the job for the next period.

Under the rotary system, all company employees are assigned to one of three arms, whose roles are defined as execution, standardization, and inspection. Basically, the execution arm performs the actual functions of the company, the standardization arm sets the procedures by which it operates, and the inspection arm makes sure the standards are followed.

Most stators work for the execution arm, which is headed by a single rotor, the Primary Rotor. The P-Rotor is the rotary system's equivalent of a CEO, or at least the closest equivalent. Unlike a CEO, the P-Rotor has no control over standardization or inspection.

There are two classes of stators in the execution arm: staff stators and line stators. Staff stators are selected by the P-Rotor personally, at his or her own discretion. Line stators (most stators are line stators) are selected by HR. You can think of a staff stator as almost a sort of sub-rotor, although again, no one who has ever been any kind of stator can become a rotor. However, it's unusual for a stator to move between staff and line roles.

Again, the P-Rotor and all stators in the execution arm are subject to full standardization and inspection. This is one of the main advantages of the rotary system: all work is standardized and inspected, ensuring a completely customer-driven enterprise.

Standardization is controlled by a large body of rotors called the Committee. The Committee, which should have at least fifty rotors, and may scale up to hundreds, drafts and enacts standards for all company procedures. All employees in the execution arm must comply with all Committee standards. Needless to say, unstandardized execution is undesirable.

Committee rotors (C-rotors) all have the same job title and status. They are selected by different segments of the customer base. For example, if you produce computers, you might have one C-rotor for the education market and another for the adult entertainment industry. Obviously, these are very different points of view. The purpose of the Committee is to make sure all these views are heard, and all are taken into account when standardizing procedures.

Each C-rotor has a small group of staff stators, and HR also assigns some line stators to serve the Committee. However, since obviously the Committee is not directly involved in execution, keeping it lean and mean minimizes overhead.

The Committee can standardize anything. All execution procedures are under its supervision. If it wants to require all stators in the execution arm, or even the P-Rotor himself, to keep all pens on the left side of their desks, it may do so. Since the Committee is selected by the customers, any such procedure is almost certainly necessary for customer satisfaction.

Ensuring compliance with Committee standards is the task of the Inspectors. The Inspectors have a very unique role in the rotary system: they are stators supervised by no rotor. Even the highest Inspectors, the Inspector-Councilors, are stators.

There are only a small number of Inspectors, and they are not subject to the ordinary stator personnel system. Instead, Inspectors are selected personally by the P-Rotor (and staff), and the selection must be approved by the Committee. Their positions are permanent.

The role of the Inspectors is to decide whether or not the execution arm is following the procedures set by the standardization arm. Inspectors may order any employee of any arm, rotor or stator, to comply with any command. Noncompliance is grounds for termination.

Decisions of lower-ranking Inspectors can be appealed to a higher-ranking Inspector. At the top level, appeals are heard by the Inspection Council, a small panel of exceptionally distinguished Inspectors.

The decision of the Council is final. The size of the Council is fixed, and it is odd, so that there are no ties. It should be less than ten, but no less than eight. When an Inspector-Councilor dies or resigns, the P-Rotor and Committee must select a replacement as soon as possible, so that the inspection arm functions normally, but when vacancies result in a tie, the decision of the lower Inspectors stands.

The inspection arm is small, but it employs a few staff and line stators in the usual way. Staff stators in the inspection arm are, unlike stators elsewhere, eligible for Inspector positions. All administrative matters in the inspection arm are handled by the Chief Inspector, who is one of the Inspector-Councilors (although his opinions carry no special weight).

Ideally, if the rotary system is applied fully, these personnel categories will be reinforced by a comprehensive sumptuary code, with distinctive and easily recognizable uniforms for all classes of stator and rotor. These will prevent confusion.

For example, line stators in the execution arm might wear gray, darkening with rank. Staff stators of the P-Rotor would look good in red, and the P-Rotor himself could wear scarlet trimmed with ermine. Aquamarine dishdashas or "man-dresses" seem fitting for C-rotors, with their staff stators in close-fitting blue jumpsuits. Inspectors, I think, should wear only robes of the severest black, with no distinction in rank except for the Chief Inspector - on whose robe a little gold braid would be very fetching.

26 Comments:

Anonymous bbroadside said...

I think I'm going to re-read this to see if I'm really getting it. Right now I'm mainly surprised because I don't see how the rotors earn enough experience to be put into supervisory roles. They are never supervised by other rotors or stators, and they never begin as stators. So there only preparation for management is their education?

August 20, 2007 at 12:41 AM  
Anonymous Herr Ziffer said...

M.,

This system is suspiciously similar to the Kiwani management system I patented only last year.

H.Z.

August 20, 2007 at 5:55 AM  
Anonymous PA said...

Hey - this is a satire!

I caught on at "less than ten, but no less than eight".

August 20, 2007 at 7:19 AM  
Anonymous Anonymous said...

I suggest you try it first in the civil service - it won't matter one way or another, and you won't get your company bankrupt.

It rather resembles the ancient Chinese bureaucratic system minus Emperor (he would probably appear in practice anyway) and plus Politburo.

Historic experience with Imperial Censors isn't propitious, however. They got too big for their boots, tried to take over command, and got castrated fairly quick (mostly not literally).

Baduin

August 20, 2007 at 7:23 AM  
Blogger r.s said...

Oh, but only this would seem to state that our government was already privatized! And what a poor result!

Brilliant parody. Eerily Orwellian.

August 20, 2007 at 7:27 AM  
Blogger Victor said...

Mencius

I think you are going in the completely wrong direction with this. Instead of customers controlling the corporation through the rotary system, we should have the supply-side management -- the corporate officers should be able to exercise arbitrary degree of control over the corporate stakeholders. The stakeholders' only recourse should be to cease being a corporation's stakeholders, and become customers of other corporations instead.

For example, if Dell demands that you buy $100 worth of music from them every year, you should have to either comply with their demand, or throw out your Dell computer and buy a new one from another company (or build your own).

I think this system will inevitably lead to the fairest and most universally beneficial corporate performance.

August 20, 2007 at 7:27 AM  
Blogger InspectorDeck said...

I got it about twenty paragraphs through. I agree with Victor. Hopefully we'll be able to switch between companies. Wait isn't that why the Berlin wall was built?

August 20, 2007 at 8:59 AM  
Anonymous bbroadside said...

It certainly seems like a clever satire, but I'm still not quite grokking whether it satirizes the American Federal government or the country as a whole. I.e., do the stators represent career civil servants or the private sector? People can become politicians from either background, so I'm still tripping up on the 'stators never become rotors' rule....

If it is one of those things left intentionally vague to provoke the reader into thinking about it more, well, I guess it has succeeded!

August 20, 2007 at 9:26 AM  
Anonymous Anonymous said...

You are cruel! And I fell for it. I stick to my Chinese analogy, however. Bureaucracy IS Chinese.

And the castration of the courts is getting nearer and nearer.

Baduin

August 20, 2007 at 10:50 AM  
Blogger Mencius Moldbug said...

bbroadside,

Name one Fedco rotor who was once a Fedco stator.

August 20, 2007 at 11:58 AM  
Blogger Mencius Moldbug said...

victor,

I'm afraid it already works that way!

August 20, 2007 at 11:58 AM  
Anonymous bbroadside said...

Oh, I probably don't understand your post as well as you may think. Am I just looking for politicians who have been specialists in the past? If stators are the private sector, I'd think any member of Congress would do. I am probably just misintepreting the parts of the description wherein rotors don't supervise other rotors. It seems like a common stepping-stone to elective office is serving in someone else's office. At least that's the way it is in my part of the country. Someone will get their "union card" by assisting a politician in making friends with various pressure groups. After they've done that for a while, the pressure groups are willing to donate to the novice politico's first campaign.

I'm not sure if that is the most common way someone becomes, e.g., a state legislator, but that's my guess. Not trying to nitpick here, I'm just not sure I've found the nebula where young rotors are made from highly energeting hydrogen atoms.

August 20, 2007 at 12:04 PM  
Blogger Mencius Moldbug said...

bbroadside,

Stators are civil servants, basically. A move from civil service to politics is almost unheard of.

Which is a little strange, don't you think? "I don't see how the rotors earn enough experience..." So I thought it'd be interesting to formulate it as a rule. Because it sure seems to be one.

Now if we use a slightly expanded definition of "Fedco stator," we see some military stators becoming rotors. The military is kind of its own world. We may occasionally see some Committee staff stators becoming C-rotors. And certainly, an internship is never any kind of a career commitment.

But in general the nebula where new rotors are born is much as you describe: people who get their "union card" through strictly informal association with the system. Of course Fedco has nothing quite like a rotor pool, but the effect is about the same, I think.

August 20, 2007 at 12:16 PM  
Blogger Mencius Moldbug said...

And when you look at the private-sector backgrounds of people who become Fedco rotors, note that the overwhelming majority have never had any statorlike position. You tend to get doctors, lawyers, small businessmen, etc, ie people who have not been subject to systematic administrative supervision.

August 20, 2007 at 12:20 PM  
Anonymous bbroadside said...

Oh, I get it now. I had thought your essay was a satire of the state's relationship to the business world. "Close enough for government work" sounds like the wry comment of a specialist on the mind of a generalist, as much as it does the comment of a businessman on bureaucracy.

Now I see that it's about the politicians' and judges' relationship to the career bureaucracy. Oddly enough ... get ready for a thumbnail bio of my past life as a Brahmin.

In college I had every intention of devoting my career (note the orthodox Brahmin language) to government work, and I intended to chart just such an unusual career path. I'd go get a specialist education in a matter of crucial importance to the public, get a civil service job (NOAA, maybe?) to see how the guts of government function, get a promotion or two, and then emerge into the glittery political world in, say, my mid-30s.

Unlike all the other junior rotors, I'd be a hot commodity because I'd have nuts-and-bolts experience. I'd compete with people who were plenty familiar with election campaigns and total novices when it came to the intended role of the democratic politician - getting the civil service to do what the public wants. It may be an unusual course, thought I, but it would be so much more sensible.

Now, of course, I'd call it "Brahmin" rather than "sensible" - it was my Platonic ideal of Brahmin rather than everyone else's. Thus, in a way, it was meta-Brahmin.

It didn't happen, which is a whole other long story. I have been a Congressional intern but I've never actually earned a government wage. So, in short, Yes, I have noticed the rarity of stator -> rotor career paths!

August 20, 2007 at 12:34 PM  
Anonymous bbroadside said...

And when you look at the private-sector backgrounds of people who become Fedco rotors, note that the overwhelming majority have never had any statorlike position. You tend to get doctors, lawyers, small businessmen, etc, ie people who have not been subject to systematic administrative supervision.

Now that's a good point that probably should have been apparently to me earlier. With politicians, you get a couple of possible paths:

Military -> legislature: fairly common
Civil service -> legislature: very rare
Lawyer -> legislature: very common
Business -> legislature: fairly common

We could divide the last one into top management of any size business (fairly common Congressional background) and specialist careers in large / technical business (not a common Congressional background). This reinforces your point.

I'm not sure the problem is the government structure. I think it is, to a small degree, public bias against "bureaucrats" (career public employees not including military, police, or teachers, more or less). This bias is equalled by the public's bias against lawyers, but the latter doesn't seem to sink too many careers. So this is a small point.

A more important cause is self-selection, I think. There are those to whom "toiling in obscurity" sounds like a pretty sweet deal. I think of the people I mentioned in my July 28, 2007 2:08 AM reply to your "adaptive fiction" post. I kind of think if you warned our techno/specialists set that their careers would afford very little opportunity for hand-shaking and chatting with the employees of famous politicians over appetizers on little colored napkins, they'd be pretty enthused.

Maybe what's going on is that not that many people really like to be supervised. Specialists know that they won't effectively be supervised, since they'll likely know more than their bosses a few months/years into their positions. Generalists just pick positions where they won't be supervised too much. That's more a whim than a theory, though.

August 20, 2007 at 1:05 PM  
Blogger Mencius Moldbug said...

I'm afraid the generalist-specialist thing was a bit of a red herring, laid down to make the "rotary system" seem superficially convincing.

There is self-selection in both directions. It takes a fairly unusual kind of person to be a rotor. This type does not thrive as a stator, and good stators do not make good rotors, either. But I think of myself as a generalist and I am certainly not cut out to be a rotor, so it is slightly more complicated than this.

And yes, the intense loathing that many of Fedco's customers feel for blue-government stators is probably a factor as well.

Note also that when military types become rotors, their success tends to be a result of the fact that the military background enchants red customers enough that they can concentrate their actual efforts on the blue side of the spectrum. Eisenhower being a good example.

August 20, 2007 at 1:56 PM  
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January 31, 2009 at 10:59 PM  
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February 12, 2009 at 2:55 AM  
Anonymous Anonymous said...

^^ nice blog!! ^@^

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March 2, 2009 at 9:20 PM  
Anonymous Anonymous said...

^^ nice blog!! thanks a lot! ^^

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March 2, 2009 at 9:21 PM  
Anonymous Anonymous said...

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March 6, 2009 at 4:57 AM  
Anonymous Anonymous said...

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March 6, 2009 at 9:15 PM  

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