Saturday, June 30, 2007 18 Comments

Carlyle rages against the coming of the light

From his Latter-Day Pamphlets (1850):
Not the least disgusting feature of this Gospel according to the Platform is its reference to religion, and even to the Christian Religion, as an authority and mandate for what it does. Christian Religion? Does the Christian or any religion prescribe love of scoundrels, then? I hope it prescribes a healthy hatred of scoundrels;--otherwise what am I, in Heaven's name, to make of it? Me, for one, it will not serve as a religion on those strange terms. Just hatred of scoundrels, I say; fixed, irreconcilable, inexorable enmity to the enemies of God: this, and not love for them, and incessant whitewashing, and dressing and cockering of them, must, if you look into it, be the backbone of any human religion whatsoever. Christian Religion! In what words can I address you, ye unfortunates, sunk in the slushy ooze till the worship of mud-serpents, and unutterable Pythons and poisonous slimy monstrosities, seems to you the worship of God? This is the rotten carcass of Christianity; this mal-odorous phosphorescence of post-mortem sentimentalism. O Heavens, from the Christianity of Oliver Cromwell, wrestling in grim fight with Satan and his incarnate Blackguardisms, Hypocrisies, Injustices, and legion of human and infernal angels, to that of eloquent Mr. Hesperus Fiddlestring denouncing capital punishments, and inculcating the benevolence on platforms, what a road have we travelled!
The historical conundrum is inconvenient indeed. Carlyle could not have guessed that Mr. Fiddlestring's great-grandchildren would resolve this duel by turning off the light-saber, surrendering the title of Christianity for the humble office of universal truth. But surely he would have mocked and applauded the gambit.

(A typical but unfortunate casualty of the God wars is the word evangelical, which once meant Mr. Fiddlestring and now refers to his adversaries. Of course, if we could resurrect Hesperus Fiddlestring himself and set him back on his soapbox, his actual policy proposals would be well to the right of Strom Thurmond, and Carlyle with his penchant for the n-word is often literally unspeakable (did he have to put it in the title?); but the armies are the same, though field and flags have shifted.)

It is fascinating and frustrating to read Carlyle, because his diagnoses are often startlingly prescient and his remedies are almost invariably dangerous and ineffective. (This is a very familiar conservative syndrome.) Carlyle is often described as a predecessor of fascism, and I see no reason at all to discount the charge, although I should note that I also see no reason to treat fascism and communism differently.

I was reminded of Carlyle by frequent commenter TGGP, who linked to this well-written essay about the conflict between Carlyle and John Stuart Mill. Levy and Peart, whose theory of presentism is ironic to say the least - it is at least as bad to patronize the past as to condemn it - severely mischaracterize a passage from Charles Kingsley's delicious Water-Babies (which I have to thank Conrad Roth for recommending), and in the usual modern style regard the dispute as thoroughly defunct, presumably courtesy of the Eighth Air Force. But they are excellent writers and they bring the affair to life quite vividly, and these peccadillos are trivial by the standards of today.

A useful, even essential, exercise when reading a writer like Carlyle, with whom any modern reader is certain to find numerous points of vigorous disagreement, is to try to construct arguments against his positions which deploy modern history as it happened and modern science as we know it, but are designed to convince Carlyle or his contemporaries. Assume that Carlyle trusts your claim to be a time traveler from 2007 and accepts your veracity, but has no other reason to agree with you. If even with the spectacular rhetorical munitions that 150 years of hindsight have armed you with, you can't win the argument, it's time to worry.

For example, in the matter of Governor Eyre, Peart and Levy see absolutely no reason to refer to the future history of Jamaica, or of colonialism in general, or of any of the many subsequent attempts to suppress revolutionary violence using military techniques more acceptable to Mr. Fiddlestring and his descendants, whose philanthropic zeal has hardly mellowed with time. Peart and Levy are economic historians, and the idea that they could have any opinion on the subject that might differ even slightly from their generation's conventional wisdom, if it even did occur to them, would be thoroughly out of place in their work.

Carlyle has many flaws. But for all of them, he was a generalist, a species long extinct. A real aurochs. And if anyone in the 19th century forecast the corrupt and bloodthirsty empires of the People that would dominate the 20th, it was he.

Of course, many in the 20th tried to apply his remedies. Carlyle's economics are nothing short of disastrous, and he is particularly fond of slave labor in almost any form imaginable, especially if there is some kind of paramilitary component. I'd like to think the Third Reich would have been much too democratic for him, but perhaps this is overly generous.

Carlyle's error as I perceive it was that he took all the doctrines of his foes, whom he perceived correctly as fools, and simply reversed them. The tragedy of the Enlightenment period is this dissection into Whig and Tory, liberal and fascist, progressive and conservative, each with almost exactly half of what I in my humble hubris consider reality. Two heads are too much for one brain, and cotton wool doesn't do well in the skull. Today our "little liber-al" or "little conserva-tive" is launched into life with a great black nest of fungal hyphae sitting right there next to the remaining hemisphere, forcing him to actually rotate his neck if he wants to see the real world to his right or left respectively, a tough maneuver even if practiced. Removing this bolus of pious delusion is difficult, replacing it with healthy tissue almost impossible.

For this, like Carlyle, I blame politics. Which means I blame democracy, because democracy without politics makes the Immaculate Conception look routine. But, again, it is important to separate this diagnosis from the many remedies that have been proposed for it - not least by Carlyle himself.

18 Comments:

Blogger Aaron Davies said...

Two pedantic niggles: first, it's "aurochs", singular, and "aurochs" or "aurochses", plural (though you'll get extra points if you use "aurochsen" for the plural). Second, the Immaculate Conception refers to Mary's being born without Original Sin, not to the Virgin Birth.

June 30, 2007 at 6:20 PM  
Blogger Conrad H. Roth said...

Carlyle is a really terrific writer, I keep meaning to get to know his work in more depth.

July 1, 2007 at 3:14 AM  
Blogger Mencius Moldbug said...

conrad,

Yeah, my Carlyle impression looks pretty lackluster next to the real thing, don't it? I'd like to think I can do a pretty convincing Hunter S. Thompson, but Carlyle is simply out of my reach. It's like trying to dunk over Manute Bol.

aaron,

Thanks - of course you're right. I can't believe I misspelled "aurochs" (especially as I was planning to include a link to Heck cattle, but decided the metaphor was pushed too far...)

But I can believe I was confused about the Immaculate Conception, because I was! It's amazing how many people are misinformed on this one. Mariolatry ain't what she used to be.

Of course, technically, the idea that Mary was born without original sin is just as difficult a proposition to swallow as the Virgin Birth. But it is a metaphysical proposition, not a claim about the real world, so...

July 1, 2007 at 5:29 PM  
Blogger Aaron Davies said...

Personally, I find the idea that everyone else was born with Original Sin even harder to swallow…

July 2, 2007 at 4:31 AM  
Blogger Michael said...

Theologically the idea of immaculate conception basically tears down the whole edifice of Christian moral logic, such as it is. Why not just make all conceptions immaculate instead of crucifying Jesus?

Biologically I think it's more of a mess as well. In a large enough population some biochemical glitch might cause human parthenogenesis, but no mutation or developmental glitch could strip a human of their evolutionary psychological baggage.

July 2, 2007 at 6:01 AM  
Anonymous Michael S. said...

The Immaculate Conception of Mary is a fairly recent Catholic doctrine, having been adopted as recently as 1870 by the First Vatican Council (along with papal infallibility). These two issues drove a number of German Catholics from the church under the leadership of Döllinger, who united with the schismatic Jansenists of Utrecht to form the present Old Catholic Church.

While the Immaculate Conception had been discussed by theologians, and was believed by many long before attaining its present official status, it is significant that both this and the assertion of papal infallibility occurred shortly after the loss of the papal states, at the beginning of the long period of hostility between the papacy and the secular rulers of Italy that did not end until the ratification of the Lateran Treaty in 1929.

The Catholic church is always most rigid and unreasonable when it is in retreat. Is it possible to imagine the persecution of Galileo outside the context of the Counterreformation? In the time of St. Albertus Magnus scientific enquiry took place within the church (and just about nowhere else). Conflicting views were debated in the universities, not haled before the Inquisition.

July 2, 2007 at 9:41 AM  
Anonymous Anonymous said...

Michael S., you speak of the Catholic Church always being at its most rigid and unreasonable when in retreat. Perhaps. But in the case of papal infallibility, at least, the Church was merely confirming what had long been held as an implicit doctrine by scholars.

One faction of Catholic prelates tried to have "ultramontanism" (which was, in effect, papal infallibility under another name) confirmed at the Council of Trent, and for some generations afterwards, but they could not do so while the papacy was still a considerable power in the temporal world. No temporal monarch would countenance the surrender of so much power to another temporal monarch. The kings of France, for example, refused to allow the promulgation of the decrees of Trent because they feared, among other things, that the papacy, so closely allied in the first half of the 17th century with Spain, would not allow them to make the alliances with Protestant England that they thought were necessary to defend them from Spanish ambitions in Europe and the New World.

So the point of the loss of the papal states coinciding with the proclamation of papal infallibility is not that the Church was making a last gesture of defiance, but that it was finally permitted to do so because it had yielded the last remaining vestige of its temporal power. It was no longer a threat, in other words, so its neighbours could afford to be magnanimous.

There's a good book by Aime-Georges Martimort called Le Gallicanisme de Bossuet (if you read French, which I think is likely since you sound learned), which is helpful in understanding the early turns of this long battle.

alias clio

July 2, 2007 at 5:54 PM  
Anonymous Michael S. said...

Clio,

Thank you for the Martimort reference. I had not heard of it. Your point about the ultramontanism of the council of Trent is taken, though it seems to me that the pre-reformation church was less papally centered and retained more of the conciliar flavor it had in late antiquity. Trent was of course the first great event in the Counterreformation and it also occurred at a time when centralization and theories of absolute monarchy began to be asserted, so it was in step with the spirit of the time.

The refusal of kings to promulgate Papal bulls in their realms, for a variety of reasons, was widespread. Bro. Mozart, for example, could be both a loyal Catholic and a Freemason because the bull In eminenti (1733) and its many successors fulminated against Freemasonry were never published in the Habsburg domains. The reason was purely personal; Francis of Lorraine was a Freemason, and his son Joseph, though he appears not to have been one, was loyal to his father's memory.

The history of concordats and the royal patronage of bishoprics is, as I think I mentioned in an earlier thread, analogous to the patronage of local parishes by the squires or lairds within whose domains they were. Lay rights of investiture were described as one of the Five Wounds of the Holy Church by Rosmini, in his book of that title.

France either fought or tried to dominate the papacy from the time of the Avignonese captivity in the high middle ages until that of the Risorgimento, which could hardly have occurred as it did without Cavour, who was an agent of Louis Napoléon. Certainly its low point was when Richelieu, though a prince of the church, gave aid and comfort to the Protestant champion, Gustavus Adolphus, during the Thirty Years' War. Chirac's recent subsidy of Saddam Hussein is an illustration of the one thing Marx ever said that was true - history repeats itself, first as tragedy, then as farce.

July 2, 2007 at 6:51 PM  
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