Friday, April 27, 2007 33 Comments

The essential idea of leftism

The people cry out for shorter, more controversial posts!

The essential idea of leftism is that the world should be governed by scholars.

(By "scholar" what I mean is, of course, "intellectual." But I don't like this word, for the same reason I don't like the word "liberal" - it makes me sound like Rush Limbaugh. Once any collective description acquires negative connotations in anyone's mind, it is no longer useful. Also, note that there is no meaningful distinction between a scholar and a priest.)

Can anyone find an exception to this rule - ie, a mass movement that is generally described as "leftist," but which does not in practice imply the rule of scholars, or at least people who think of themselves as scholars? Your comments, as always, are welcomed with enthusiasm.


Anonymous PA said...

Is your comment limited to the Western context, or do you consider Sharia societies leftist as well?

April 27, 2007 at 3:27 PM  
Blogger Mencius Moldbug said...


An interesting question!

I don't think I would go so far as to try to turn "leftism" into an exclusive description in this sense. All cats have four legs, but not all quadrupeds are cats.

That said, it's an interesting analogy and one I'll try to explore in future. There are certainly very real historical connections between leftism and both the modern (Salafist) and premodern versions of Sharia.

April 27, 2007 at 4:12 PM  
Blogger jhorgan said...

The essential idea of leftism is that the power and resources of the state can be harnessed and employed for good; the good of individuals and the whole society.

April 27, 2007 at 4:17 PM  
Blogger Steve said...

Wrong. Maoism has no use for scholars. Also consider anti-colonialism among indigenous peoples who reject the Eurasian intellectual tradition, and the anarcho-primitivist strain of Green/Gaia-ist ideology.

April 27, 2007 at 5:02 PM  
Anonymous PA said...

There is a thin line separating the scholar from the brute. A Rubashev will always morph into a Gletkin.

In other words, one can define Leftism as a political philosophy, or as a power grab dressed in lofty slogans.

April 27, 2007 at 6:20 PM  
Blogger Mencius Moldbug said...

Steve - if Maoism had no use for scholars, how do you explain the "works of Chairman Mao"? Granted, he certainly had no use for scholars who disagreed with him. But all the Marxist-Leninist bigs were credited with a prodigious literary output, and all with a very few exceptions had backgrounds as student activists.

jhorgan - exactly. And who does the harnessing and employing? Certainly not politicians, generals, or CEOs...

pa - someone knows more Soviet history than me! But I get your drift...

April 27, 2007 at 8:24 PM  
Blogger Steve said...

But Mao never claimed to be a scholar. The Red Book is not a scholarly work - not in intent, nor in content.

Remember that Mao went swimming in the rivers of China for the purpose of propaganda. According to Maoism, the *praxis* of swimming, of exercising one's body to do revolutionary work, was far superior to a lifetime of idle scholarship under the old regime. According to Maoism, all scholars are wrong *because* they are scholars.

April 28, 2007 at 12:48 AM  
Blogger ither said...

I think this is rather meaningless. By 'scholar' you seem to mean a scholar in a classical Chinese sense, a mandarin. Accordingly, a 'priest' is a mandarin theologian believing in a specific system of thought subject to canonization. The other meaning is simply that of a facilitator of ritual.

In any case, I don't think such analogies are very useful. They leave one craving more of Moore.

April 28, 2007 at 2:06 AM  
Anonymous PA said...

Hey man, I thought I was right up your alley with Rubashev and Gletkin!

They're from Arthur Koestler's classic "Darkness at Noon".

April 28, 2007 at 3:23 AM  
Anonymous Anonymous said...

Intelectuals have been mainly the leaders of communist left.
Those of the social democratic parties were mostly working class. Hence the difference.

PS: Great blog

April 28, 2007 at 4:05 AM  
Blogger Mencius Moldbug said...


Doh! I'm afraid the generalist's all-encompassing erudition always has a bit of the matte-painting quality to it. One of the many important books I should have read and haven't...

April 28, 2007 at 9:39 AM  
Blogger Mencius Moldbug said...


Have you read Chang and Halliday? The portrait of Mao is pretty unforgettable.

My post might make more sense if you read "scholar" as "thinker." I was simply looking for the word with the strongest possible positive connotation. I have not actually read Mao himself, but when he talks about "scholars," one assumes he means classical Chinese scholars of the tradition ither is discussing, in which case your remark (like ither's) is accurate but directed at a narrower point than that which I intended to make.

April 28, 2007 at 9:43 AM  
Anonymous Tex said...

"The essential idea of leftism is that the world should be governed by scholars"

A provocative thesis.

But as a student Kuehnelt-Leddihn you are aware that the nomenclature of "right" and "left" find their origins in the arrangement of political factions in the National Assembly of France during the French Revolution.

Just as sitting on the left side of the theater means you can not simultaneously sit on the right, the only thing essential about "the left" is that it is not "the right". The only thing essential about "the right" is that it is not "the left".

Think of "the right" and "the left" as two warring armies. Each army is made of coalitions. The armies advance and retreat on the field of battle, cede territory to each other. Coalition members will occasionally defect. These maneuvers explain why "the left" of a prior era will occasionally look like "the right" of a latter era and vice versa.

For concrete and quantifiable examples of "the right" and "the left", consider the two main political parties in America: Republicans and Democrats. Or for a more topical example with a more direct etymological geneology, consider the two main political parties that are currently contending for priority in the latest elections in France.

But the question remains, has scholar-ocracy been a consistent theme among the various coalitions that have occupied the left side of the territory between now and the French Revolution?

As a disciple of Throne and Alter, Joseph de Maistre was a "man of the right". As a disciple of Nature and Equality, Jean-Jacques Rousseau was a "man of the left". Between the two, who would have been more likely to assert that people should be ruled by scholar-priests?

April 29, 2007 at 1:14 AM  
Blogger dearieme said...

Didn't the Khmer Rouge set out to murder all scholars, the effect, no doubt, of Pottist training?

April 29, 2007 at 4:11 AM  
Blogger Mencius Moldbug said...

tex -

You make good points.

Obviously, since a scholar as great as K-L wrote an entire book on the subject, any one-sentence definition is going to lose a little nuance.

(It's interesting to watch the price of Leftism Revisited going up as K-L's stock rises. I think I paid about $30 for mine, and that was less than a year ago. It's nothing, though, compared to this - which I got a couple of months ago, and I don't recall what I paid but it certainly wasn't anything like $64.97. Surely, this is progress.)

I have not read Maistre, but from what I recall he was a monarchist, not a Jesuit. Of course the clergy had a significant role in all the old dispensations of Europe. But it was by no means an exclusive role. (Perhaps one of the most interesting cases of leftism avant la lettre, a forerunner of the modern world in so many ways, was the Jesuit state in Paraguay. I don't know that there is any satisfactory historical treatment of this bizarre episode.)

But in any case, my general answer is that I was offering a definition of leftism, not of rightism. Ultimately I have to disagree with K-L: I don't think the terms left and right are useful in the modern world. But if I had to pick one, I'd pick left, because "rightism" has just come to mean any doctrine that varies from orthodox leftism. Surely any category that can contain, however spuriously, both Maistre and Gingrich, is not useful.

April 29, 2007 at 11:13 AM  
Blogger Mencius Moldbug said...


Indeed he did, and indeed as I'm sure you know the KR elite were scholars themselves (educated in France).

What else should we expect from academic politics in the real world? No doubt if entomologists ruled, the ant men would have it in for the beetle men, and both would feel nothing but contempt for the butterfly-chasers of yore.

Credal factions, in other words, always splinter like crazy. It's only with ethnic politics that caste solidarity starts to actually work. And even then, traitors are toast. The Hutu Power forces, if anything, may have been most concerned about getting rid of the "moderate Hutus."

April 29, 2007 at 11:21 AM  
Blogger Victor said...

Nestor Makhno -- "Bat'ko Makhno" -- organized a short-lived anarchic society in Ukraine during the Civil War. He was a leftist, an anarchist, and he was not a scholar.

April 30, 2007 at 8:02 AM  
Blogger Mencius Moldbug said...

No, Makhno was just a gangster. This may have had something to do with his lack of success.

I don't know much more about Makhno than what you wrote, and I trust La Wik about as far as I can throw it, but the entry also paints a suggestive portrait of what I suspect was probably a jailhouse intellectual conversion. For sure, his peasant parents didn't raise him as an anarchist.

Stalin also wasn't much of a scholar. The combination of scholar and gangster, at its worst, was sort of like being a "student-athlete" in an American high school - it doesn't mean you have a 4.0 and 1500 SATs, and also play a little tennis.

But note that the power of the General Secretary decreased over time in all Communist regimes, in favor of the nomenklatura, who were of course identical with the educated class (Djilas's New Class). I think it's fairly clear that Stalinism, and gangster rule in general, is best regarded as an unintended consequence of Marxist-Leninism. When Marx used the words "dictatorship of the proletariat," it's a safe bet that Stalin wasn't exactly what he had in mind.

April 30, 2007 at 6:55 PM  
Blogger Das said...

I'd like to recommend a couple books by Eric Hoffer: "First Things, Last Things" and "The Temper of our Time."

Hoffer was fascinated by the scholar's (intellectual’s) unyielding hatred for America - he thought about it from every angle - never quite coming up with a definitive explanation.

He thought that sputnik affair inadvertently washed many business types (or men of action) into the humanities. When the 60s came along the lure of activism was too much for these types to resist, trading in scholarly quietism for politics.

He also proposed that intellectuals (except for the founders) had never really been integrated into the bulk of American life - business America paid little attention to them and kept them away from power. The 60s kicked open the door for American intellectuals to get a taste of power for the first time.

Can't recommend his books highly enough.

Meantime while American engineers were putting men on the moon we had Susan Sontag saying, "the quality of American life is an insult to the possibilities of human growth." If you don't hear a bloody minded scholar/commissar behind that statement you are deaf.

May 1, 2007 at 2:26 PM  
Blogger The Social Pathologist said...

Wrong Menicus. The essential idea of leftism is the perfection of man. It is a repudiation of the doctrine of original sin. The mechanism of perfection is through the action of secular government.

May 1, 2007 at 3:27 PM  
Anonymous SFG said...

Two words: labor unions.

Not too many scholars there, and they're pretty left-wing.

May 1, 2007 at 4:14 PM  
Anonymous SFG said...

OK, I'm a liberal, I'll try.

The essential idea of leftism is a suspicion of inequality.

No, think about it. Liberals always see them(our)selves as raging against some power group or other--businesses, men, whites, Christians, etc.

May 1, 2007 at 4:42 PM  
Anonymous mr tall said...

No, this is not yet the heart of leftism. To understand it best, it's necessary to recognize it as a Christian heresy. Leftism seeks to immantize the eschaton.

In other words, the goal of leftism is to try to force the eschaton -- the goal of history, i.e. the perfect reign of Christ, aka Heaven -- to be made manifest not in a new creation, but here and now in our earthly societies. That's its essential utopianism. 'Government' is only a means to this end.

But I agree that it's scholars who are usually behind leftist schemes. You have to possess both the power of intellect and breadth of imagination to hold a utopian vision in your head, and to dream up the 'steps' you must 'encourage' your comrades to take in order to bring this vision to frution. And you have to be arrogant enough to believe you and your ilk are capable of remaking society, instead of humbly waiting for God to transform it.

May 1, 2007 at 7:03 PM  
Anonymous Anonymous said...

To the extent they have a politics, the "organic" and "crunchy" movement is an exception to this. They want leaders to be "conscientious" and governed by environmental scholarship (few would disagree that there is some role for empirical research in policy making), but they don't really care if leaders are "intellegenica."

Populism and progressive movement was a counter-intellegencia movement (I realize your comment is directed at modern liberalism)

May 2, 2007 at 1:22 AM  
Blogger Victor said...


You wrote:

"No, Makhno was just a gangster. This may have had something to do with his lack of success."

Don't you see what you are doing? You are defining the question in such a way that only scholars can be leftist governors of the world. Any non-scholar leftist you dismiss as either non-leftist, or non-governor, or as being a scholar under the hood. In essence, you are defining your way to your conclusion.

I think the real point is that *any* ideology will be driven largely by scholars, simply due to the nature of ideology. The governing representatives of any ideology can thus be, in some way or another, fitted into the 'scholar' mold -- and those who don't fit, usually end up footnotes in the history books anyway, like Makhno was.

I agree with what someone said above: the real essential idea of leftism is perfectibility (not perfection, but perfectibility) of man. Government by scholars has nothing to do with it, really, except inasmuch as any coherent ideology will generally be constructed by people who can be reasonably called 'scholars'.

May 2, 2007 at 9:39 AM  
Blogger Mencius Moldbug said...

das -

Yes, I am a huge Eric Hoffer fan. I haven't read "First Things," but I suppose I should just capitulate and order the entire oeuvre.

sfg -

While there certainly have been union leaders who didn't have a student background, and some unions did (like the Teamsters) go down the gangster path, I'll have to disagree with you there - I think the 20C union movement as a whole has been quite well-integrated with intellectual leftism. Certainly the position of "labor relations" or whatever as a university department seems pretty secure these days.

Others, especially victor - these are all good comments, but they are responding to a different argument from the one I was trying to make. The miscommunication is obviously my fault.

The ideals of leftism take many forms - equality, the eschaton, etc. The identification of leftism as a form of Christianity is essentially sound, I think, and I will have much more to say on this.

And leftists are, in my experience, like most people generally sincere.

However, my claim is that whatever the ideals, leftism in practice devolves to the rule of scholars, and this is why so many scholars are attracted to it, although they almost never rationalize it in this way. Human psychology is very, very good at aligning beliefs and interests.

And I don't think the proposition is quite as trivial as victor's analysis indicates. Certainly, even in the 20th century, we have seen societies that were dominated by, for example, the military. World War II was essentially a global civil war between neoscholastics and neomilitarists. If the neomilitarists had won, it would seem very natural to us to reason that all societies are in the end controlled by soldiers.

(Although I think the scholars would have come creeping back, even in a Nazi alternate reality. It is hard to separate scholars from power, although they will cut their tune to the party in charge. Klemperer is pretty scathing on this point. Perhaps a world in which the Nazis won WWII would not, in 2007, be as different from ours as most people assume.)

May 2, 2007 at 1:55 PM  
Anonymous SFG said...

I'll disagree. WWII was a war between Germany and Japan, Russia, and Western Europe and America. While I'm not sure Hitler could have maintained his empire, he would have killed a lot more people and left a brutal totalitarian Western Europe. Western Europe has problem but is not a totalitarian government. Like, I know you can't deny the Holocaust, but that's not the same as Nazi Germany (or for that matter Communist Russia).

Leftism in practice devolves to the rule of scholars? Could be. Is Europe run by scholars? They're well-educated, but seem primarily bureaucrats, even if French candidates publish books occasionally. (I don't see how that's different from Bush trying to run a business when out of office.)

May 2, 2007 at 2:51 PM  
Blogger Mencius Moldbug said...


I think it's important to distinguis the wartime Third Reich from its peacetime predecessor.

The latter is certainly misdescribed by the epithet "totalitarian." It was really more comparable to a state like today's Iran. As Simon Wiesenthal said, "unless you were a Jew, the Stasi was much worse than the Gestapo."

Especially in occupied territories (and, of course, if you were a Jew), wartime Nazism was a very different animal. It's unclear how much reversion would have occurred in peacetime. Still, I think there's no reason to think that victorious Nazis would have been more violent than victorious Soviets, especially since in prewar conditions the former were far, far more murderous.

Perhaps in the word "scholar" I went a little far in looking for the positive associations. I don't really think of bureaucrats as scholars. But nonetheless, today's civil-service tradition has its roots in the universities, and still considers itself (not entirely without truth) a guardian class of enlightened experts.

May 2, 2007 at 8:56 PM  
Anonymous SFG said...

Maybe then you could say,

The essential result of leftist policies is rule by bureaucrats . There's a lot more accuracy to that at least as regards Europe, the best example of democratic socialism available today. It makes some intuitive sense insofar as redistribution requires a large bureaucracy.

Though I'm not sure how to class Hugo Chavez, who seems pretty much like an old-fashioned strongman.

May 3, 2007 at 3:12 AM  
Blogger Mencius Moldbug said...


Yes, but I think there's more to it than that.

Because the bureaucrats are not "idea men." Intellectual innovation in a bureaucracy is very much discouraged. The worst sin is to be "ideological."

Today's bureaucracies get their ideas primarily from the press. And the press gets theirs from the seminaries - excuse me, universities.

So, while the bureaucrats craft the specific details of "policy," their intellectual inspiration is elsewhere. This is why I think focusing on bureaucracy as the problem is just pulling off leaves.

And, yes, what I mean is that this is the inevitable result of leftism. But, again, there is slightly more, I think.

This result is also a cause. Because it is the feeling of power, of importance, that attracts scholars to leftism in the first place. If leftism in practice meant, say, the rule of soldiers, this attraction would not exist.

Leftists, of course, don't see it this way. They don't think of themselves as scheming for power. They use phrases like "creating social change." This is very normal hominid behavior.

May 3, 2007 at 11:12 AM  
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November 6, 2008 at 5:34 PM  
Blogger 信次 said...

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February 1, 2009 at 12:01 AM  
Anonymous Anonymous said...


March 6, 2009 at 10:06 PM  

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